Tool-assisted game movies
When human skills are just not enough

Submission #4770: pirohiko's NES Final Fantasy II in 07:32.37

Console: Nintendo Entertainment System
Game name: Final Fantasy II
Game version: JPN
ROM filename: Final Fantasy II (J).nes
Emulator: FCEUX 2.2.2
Movie length: 07:32.37
FrameCount: 27187
Re-record count: 570
Author's real name: K.N
Author's nickname: pirohiko
Submitter: pirohiko
Submitted at: 2015-07-21 21:53:10
Text last edited at: 2015-07-27 02:33:54
Text last edited by: Guga
Download: Download (4382 bytes)
Status: published
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Author's comments and explanations:

(Link to video)

Game objectives

  • Allow Left+Right / Up+Down
  • Emulator used: FCEUX 2.2.2 (Old PPU)
  • Major skip glitch
  • Executes arbitrary code
  • Corrupts memory
  • Genre: RPG
  • Uses a game restart sequence
  • Aims for fastest time
  • Heavily abuses programming errors
  • Manipulates Luck

Usable memory address

  • $00F5 = RNG index
  • $00F6 = RNG index direction, if it is more than 80, it is leftward.
  • $F900-$F9FF = RNG table
  • $F900+($00F5) = RNG
  • $00F7 = The encounter number of times
  • $00F8 = The encounter threshold in UW

Save and Restart

Even if a game is reset, the encounter table is held. 1. You save a game 2. You move it one pixel 3. You reset a game 4. The encounter is skipped When you overwrite a game, the confirmation message is very slow. Because a game is saved before confirmation, it is fast that a game is reset than it closes a menu. It is faster to touch a power supply, but 1/4 time is good at a good balance with the distance to walk.

To Paloom

The route going around the world to the west obtains a canoe and is faster than a route across the river by more than 50 seconds.

Chocobo Forest

Because the power supply was initialized, NPC RNG is not manipulated. On the way, I adjusted it to be able to encounter the Land Turtle.

Takeover of the shuttle ship

When you push the start button just before you enter the paid sailing ship, the autopilot is concluded with a menu screen and becomes able to steer it by yourself. But you can never get into a ship if you got it off in the island.

Deist Cavern

The monster of this place cannot escape. I pushed forward RNG for encounter evasion twice using Potion. Because the encounter number of times is 4, the land turtle appears.

45-floor bug


Please refer to the post of TaoTao.

This game has room movement of "goto" and "return". 5 bytes are pushed to stack domain by "goto" movement, and it is popped for "return" movement. "goto" movement is repeated between the rooms with complicated divergence of stairs. "goto" movement is restricted by 45 times, but that's insufficient, so when a battle was accomplished, a stack overflow occurs.

Top of the stack and NMI

When Non-Maskable Interrupts (NMI) occurs by this game, $0100 are run. $0100 are the top of the stack domain that is 256 bytes, and ReTurn from Interrupt (RTI) and JMP are written in dynamically here. When the stack is pushed up to $0101-$0102, unjust JMP is carried out at the time of NMI, the game almost freezes, and the save data often disappear, too.

Why were $6785 called?

When the second character attacked the Land Turtle, a stack domain was renewed to $0101 by a recursive Jump SubRoutine (JSR).

  27364 frame
  A:FF X:04 Y:08 S:02 P:NvUbdIzc                              $9B4A:20 B6 9B  JSR $9BB6
  A:FF X:04 Y:08 S:00 P:NvUbdIzc                                $9BB6:A5 C4     LDA $00C4 = #$FF
NMI occurs in the middle of a calculation, and return address and P-Register are pushed to stack up as "$010F:27 A0 FC".
  • P:nvUbdIZC = 0b00100111 = 0x27

  A:00 X:10 Y:EE S:11 P:nvUbdIZC               $FC9E:85 04     STA $0004 = #$00
  A:00 X:10 Y:EE S:0E P:nvUbdIZC                  $0100:4C 4C 9B  JMP $9B4C
  A:00 X:10 Y:EE S:0E P:nvUbdIZC                  $9B4C:6A        ROR
NMI jumped to $9B4C, and a Stack-Pointer slipped off when the Program-Counter returned from many subroutines. RTI using 3 bytes at the end of NMI is usually appropriate, but the Program-Counter goes to $A028 because RTS, which in this case only 2 bytes uses, was run.

  27374 frame
  A:00 X:03 Y:00 S:0E P:nvUbdIZC                  $9B84:60        RTS ----------------------------------------
  A:00 X:03 Y:00 S:10 P:nvUbdIZC                $A028:04        NOP (illgal)
  A:00 X:03 Y:00 S:10 P:nvUbdIZC                $A02A:66 A9     ROR $00A9 = #$76
  A:00 X:03 Y:00 S:10 P:NvUbdIzc                $A02C:15 85     ORA $85,X @ $0088 = #$04
  A:04 X:03 Y:00 S:10 P:nvUbdIzc                $A02E:67        RRA $20 (illgal)
  A:40 X:03 Y:00 S:10 P:nvUbdIzc                $A030:2F        RLA $A997 (illgal)
  A:40 X:03 Y:00 S:10 P:nvUbdIzc                $A033:05 85     ORA $0085 = #$0E
  A:4E X:03 Y:00 S:10 P:nvUbdIzc                $A035:66 A9     ROR $00A9 = #$BB
  A:4E X:03 Y:00 S:10 P:nvUbdIzC                $A037:69 85     ADC #$85
  A:D4 X:03 Y:00 S:10 P:NvUbdIzc                $A039:67        RRA $20  (illgal)
  A:F2 X:03 Y:00 S:10 P:NvUbdIzc                $A03B:2F        RLA $A997 (illgal)
  A:40 X:03 Y:00 S:10 P:nvUbdIzc                $A03E:06 85     ASL $0085 = #$0E
  A:40 X:03 Y:00 S:10 P:nvUbdIzc                $A040:66 A9     ROR $00A9 = #$5D
  A:40 X:03 Y:00 S:10 P:nvUbdIzC                $A042:20 85 67  JSR $6785
  • $A041:"A9 20 85 67" is "LDA #$20" and "STA $0067"
  • $A042:"20 85 67" becomes "JSR $6785", because 1 byte slips off than a right program.

  27374 frame
  A:40 X:03 Y:00 S:0E P:nvUbdIzC                  $6785:4C 42 64  JMP $6442
  A:40 X:03 Y:00 S:0E P:nvUbdIzC                  $6442:CE CF D0  DEC $D0CF = #$85
  A:40 X:03 Y:00 S:0E P:NvUbdIzC                  $6445:4C 4D F3  JMP $F34D
It can arrive at the credits by "JMP $F34D", but MMC1, which became unstable because of "RLA $A997", will fail in bank changing. I initialize MMC1 with "DEC $D0CF" to evade it.

The details of the character

SRAM Addresses

Save Data 1
$6440 01 00 CE CF D0 4C 4D F3 14 00 14 00 05 00 05 00
Save Data 2
$6700 00 00 FF FF FF FF FF 95 1E 00 1E 00 05 00 05 00
$6740 01 00 CE CF D0 4C 4D F3 14 00 14 00 05 00 05 00
$6780 02 00 D0 DA D1 4C 42 64 28 00 28 00 05 00 05 00
$67C0 08 00 A2 B6 A2 B6 FF FF 1E 00 1E 00 05 00 05 00

Meaning of the character name

1st Five space that were skipped "Shi" is death
2nd "O KA KI" is DEC $D0CF "Bi Bu Re" is JMP $F34D
3rd "Ki Chi Ku" is without meaning "Bi Ji Pa" is JMP $6442
4th "No N No N" is without meaning

Nameable Text Table

8A 8B 8C 8D 8E 8F 90 91 92 93
94 95 96 97 98 99 9A 9B 9C 9D
9E 9F A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7
A8 A9 AA AB AC B0 B1 B2 B3 B4
AD AE AF B5 B6 3C 3D 3E 3F 40
41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 4A
64 65 66 67 68 4B 4C 4D 4E 4F
7D 7E 7F 7C FF 80 81 82 83 84
D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 DA DB DC DD
DE DF E0 E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 E6 E7
E8 E9 EA EB EC F0 F1 F2 F3 F4
ED EE EF F5 F6 50 51 52 53 54
55 56 57 58 59 5A 5B 5C 5D 5E
69 6A 6B 6C 6D 5F 60 61 62 63
BD BE BF BC C2 85 86 87 88 89

Special Thanks

  • cheap: Cheap showed that Deist Cavern was the shortest route.
  • FinalFighter: FinalFighter made the LuaScript which told that a PC passed a specific address.
  • naruko: Naruko taught me code where MMC1 did not freeze. And he also offered various documents.
  • TaoTao: TaoTao made a movie of the 45-floor bug. I was able to discover the jump to SRAM of $6785 by investigating the movie with LuaScript of FinalFighter.

ars4326: (Made some minor grammatical corrections for better readability).

ars4326: Judging underway!

ars4326: Hello, pirohiko. This run was an outstanding technical display of arbitrary code execution (ACE), which, despite a considerable trek through the overworld, provided an entertaining payoff. The included overlay in the encode made the process easier to understand and added to the viewing experience. Thread feedback, also, was mostly enthusiastic and appreciative of the amount of effort put in. Great work on another well-made TAS!

Accepting for publication to Moons!

Guga: Processing...

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